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Country / Currency
FRENCH POLYNESIA franc (XPF)
French Polynesia consists of five archipelagoes both volcanic and coral of total land mass of 4167 square kilometers located in the South Pacific. This Oceanic overseas territory of France is home to 275,000 people. Tourism, economic aid and the French military are major industry providers as the region is known for France’s nuclear weapon test program. The standard of living is very respectable at $17,500 USD/capita, inflation is low at 1.1 percent estimated for 2006. The formal name given to the currency is ‘Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc’. The franc (XPF) is fixed to the Euroland euro at 119.33 XPF to 1 EUR, previously fixed to the former French franc at 18.18 XPF. Please also visit the currency write-up on ‘New Caledonia’ within this BankINTRO.com currency index for further information on the XPF.
UPDATED: November 23, 2006
GAMBIA dalasi (GMD)
For a summary review of economic statistics, currency, currency history and currency forecast with regard to the Gambian dalasi, please click the flag below. Thank you for reading.
UPDATED: July 10, 2006
GEORGIA lari (GEL)
Georgia, a small Caucasus country located along the Black Sea finds itself caught in the middle of superpower forces (Russia and the United States / European Union) as it is located strategically between Europe and Asia. Great change has taken place for Georgia since the implosion of the former Soviet Union in the early 1990’s, but many challenges lie ahead including the territorial integrity of its borders.
The lari has experienced relative currency stability since the currency crash of 1999. Currency risk remains high at the time of review when a large number of world's currencies are currently under tremendous exchange pressure including Russia due to the recent collapse in world oil price - November 2014. For a review on these currency risks that prevail for Georgia, please click the flag below. Thank you for reading.
UPDATED: December 7, 2014
GHANA new cedis (GHC)
For a brief snapshot currency review which includes economic highlights, currency, currency history and currency forecast, please click Ghana’s flag below. Thank you.
UPDATED: August 6, 2005
GIBRALTAR pound (GIP)
Gibraltar is a British colony (member of the European Union since 1973) located on the Southern coast of Spain, tiny in size at only 2.25 square miles home to 28,000 citizens although large in geographic importance with its strategic location. The people of Gibraltar just recently voted for the approval of a new constitution that will give Gibraltar more autonomy. The economy is prosperous with a very high standard of living. The mainstay of the economy includes shipping trade, tourism and offshore banking. The Gibraltar pound is currently fixed to the British pound sterling at par. Currency notes are issued by the government of Gibraltar. It should be noted that UK pound sterling (GBP) are widely accepted within Gibraltar although Gibraltar notes are not accepted within the United Kingdom. No exchange controls.
UPDATED: December 12, 2006
GUATEMALA quetzal (GTQ) dollar (USD)
Guatemala’s original national currency the quetzal (named after the national bird) has recently been joined in parallel with the US-dollar ‘USD’. Continued liberalization of the Guatemalan economy since the return of political stability in late 1996 is designed to attract foreign investment in order to stimulate the economy. Guatemala has long been recognized as a Third World country although it is the largest economy in Central America and a member of G-24. The nation’s difficulties lie with its political history, a history scarred by corruption, military dictatorships and civil war. Now with political stability, new laws favoring free market policies and currency reform, the Guatemalan economy may now provide for a greater standard of living for its citizens.
For a discussion on the currency developments currently taking place within Guatemala as presented by BankINTRO.com, please click the flag below. Thank you for your consideration.
UPDATED: November 4, 2004
GUERNSEY pound (GGP, GBP)
With an area of only 78 square miles domiciled in the English Channel northwest of France, Guernsey with its 65,000 citizens is a popular offshore tax haven and banking centre. The Guernsey pound is in currency union with the United Kingdom trading at par with the other currencies in the UK sterling zone. The pound is sound, the Guernsey economy is strong with financial services dominating in the areas of banking, fund management, insurance. Taxation is minimal resulting in a very high GDP/capita of $40,000 USD. The pound is tied at par to the British pound, follows a floating exchange rate regime.
UPDATED: November 2, 2006
GUINEA franc (GNF)
For a snapshot overview of the Guinean franc as presented by BankINTRO.com, please click the flag below. Thanks for visiting.
UPDATED: July 14, 2006.
The Guyanese dollar has experienced modest depreciation and devaluation since its abandonment of socialist policies in the early 1990’s as the official and parallel market rates have merged. Today, Guyana is rebuilding and moving its economy forward slowly after two decades of socialist policies during the 1970-80’s that held back the economy immensely.
What industries of the future are going to support the Guyanese dollar?
For an overview on Guyana, please click the Guyanese flag below. Thank you in advance.
UPDATED: April 5, 2010
HAITI gourde (HTG)
In the 1790’s, Haiti was one of the wealthiest societies on earth as measured by GDP/Capita. Today in 2006, Haiti is one of the poorest third world countries in the world. For a snapshot summary of the Haitian gourde as researched by BankINTRO.com, please click the flag below. Thank you.
UPDATED: July 14, 2006
HONDURAS lempira (HNL)
Many challenges remain for Honduras including high poverty & crime rates, but new opportunities are welcoming. For a brief summary on the currency developments taking place within Honduras, please click the flag below. Thank you.
UPDATED: January 12, 2006
HONG KONG dollar (HKD)
(Special Area Region - China)
The peaceful handover of Hong Kong from Great Britain to China in 1997 is an important first major step for Hong Kong’s integration into mainland China’s massive and high growth social market economy. At present, Hong Kong’s currency peg at 7.80 HKD to 1 US-dollar (‘USD’) has served Hong Kong well with great currency stability. Is there a continental economic shift taking place for Hong Kong moving away from currency dependence on the USD towards China’s renminbi yuan currency? Will Hong Kong maintain its USD peg? Is the peg vulnerable to a devaluation considering Hong Kong’s continuing deflation since the 1997-98 Asian currency crisis?
For a brief discussion and further details on Hong Kong’s economy, political, regional and other important developments impacting its currency, please click the flag below. Thank you for your consideration. UPDATED: January 5, 2004
This central European nation has made tremendous progress since the break-up of the Soviet Union and collapse of communism in 1989-90 but the path has had significant economic challenges to overcome. The days of high Hungarian inflations are over although sacrifices have been made to achieve this goal.
The authorities remaining hurdle is to tackle the country’s gross debt load and persistent annual deficits to get it in line with ERM2 leading to the euro as new national currency for Hungary.
For an overview on the situation facing Hungary, please click the flag below. Thank you in advance.
UPDATED: November 15, 2010
ICELAND krona (ISK)
The Icelandic economy is modernizing and diversifying away from the traditional fishing industry of which Icelanders have depended upon for generations. During the 1990’s, political reforms and policies were oriented towards integrating Iceland into the world economy from its past of isolation, particularly after the currency crisis the nation found itself in during the 1980’s.
Please click the flag below for further details on Iceland’s economy and other important events that will help to decide the krona’s future. Thank you.
UPDATED: July 4, 2005
INDIA rupee (INR)
The Indian rupee has performed relatively well over the last 20 years since India’s balance of payments and currency crisis in 1991. The country has undertaken drastic change in thinking and ideology with regard to its economy. Great challenges lie ahead including further investments into infrastructure, issues relating to the environment and overpopulation. Extreme poverty remains a problem for a large swath of the population.
For a complete discussion on India and the future impact on the rupee as presented by BankINTRO.com, please click the flag below. Thank you for your consideration. UPDATED: June 24, 2010
In October 2002, Indonesia was rocked by the Bali terrorist attacks. Then in December 2004, the nation was swiped by a powerful tsunami that killed 100,000 Indonesians and caused over $4 billion USD in damage. Then another bomb blast in Bali in October 2005 which killed 25. Then Indonesia was hit by a damaging earthquake in March 2005. Does it get any worse? How about global warming, but that is another story.
But what is surprising is how resilient the country is and how well it actually performed economically over the last 5 years. For details on some of the continuing currency risks that are prevalent along with other relevant information, BankINTRO.com has provided an updated currency review on Indonesia’s national currency, the rupiah. Please click the flag below, thanks for visiting.
UPDATED: February 10, 2007
"Special Drawing Right"
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND / WORLD BANK
The SDR is an artificial currency used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for internal accounting purposes. Some countries use the SDR as a peg for their currency. At present, the currencies that make up the SDR basket include the US-dollar, Euroland euro, British pound sterling and the Japanese yen. The basket composition is reviewed and/or adjusted every 5 years to ensure that it reflects the relative importance of currencies in the world’s trading market and financial system. The last review took place in November 2005 and the new updated currency basket was implemented on January 1, 2006. The revised currency weights are as follows: US-dollar at 44 percent, the euro at 34 percent, Japanese yen at 11 percent and the British pound at 11 percent.
UPDATED: January 19, 2007
IRAN rial (IRR)
Iran is a nation with a very long vibrant history reflecting at times dramatic risk and change. As a Muslim country, this swift desire for change was noticed particularly after the 1979 Islamic religious revolution that took place under then Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. During the 1980’s, Iran isolated itself from much of the Western world as it fought a hard 8-year war (1980-88) with its neighbor, Iraq. Coincidentally from the 1970’s, one of the most influencing factors that is taking place within Iranian society and is having huge implications for future Iran and its currency, the ‘Iranian rial’ is the immense sharp change in Iran’s demographic make-up of the population. Since 1997 when moderate Liberal President Khatami was first elected President of Iran with a mandate to open Iran and fix the economy, Western style freedoms amongst other reforms to a modest degree have taken place resulting in a slow gradual transformation of Iranian society.
Immediate key concerns for Iran is the extent of the political fallout from the hard-line Conservative clerics convincing victory to Iran’s parliament in February 2004 elections. Will this sea change revival again in Iranian politics derail Iran’s economic progress?
What about Iran’s tenure with its outright nuclear program and questionable foreign policy objectives?
Will high world oil and natural gas prices continue to save the rial from a currency collapse or economic malaise?
For further discussion on Iran’s economy, political direction amongst other information that is pertinent to Iran’s national currency, please click the flag below. Thank you for your consideration.
UPDATED: July 19, 2004
IRAQ dinar (NID)
The Iraqi dinar under former President Saddam Hussein’s regime during the 1980-90’s experienced diminishing purchasing power. Today, a new central Iraqi government has been restored under the leadership of President Ghazi al-Yawar, a sunni with the assistance and general guidance of the United States with its command of 150,000 coalition troops within Iraq. To date the net result has been positive with the New Iraqi dinar ‘NID’ experiencing a re-birth in currency stability although many great challenges still lie ahead. Persistent widespread insurrection violence is prevalent today with most of these terrorist attacks occurring in the Sunni triangle in and around Baghdad creating an environment of guerrilla warfare for Iraq’s 24.5 million citizens.
Is Saudia Arabia’s internal strife a new growing threat to Iraq? Will a freshly installed U.S. puppet government in Iraq do any better? What future lies ahead for the NID? Will it continue to perform better since its inception in October 2003 considering Iraq is sitting on the world’s second largest oil reserves in an era of exponential demand for oil.
For a complete discussion and review of the latest developments taking place within Iraq amongst other interesting information, please click the Iraqi flag below. Thank you.
UPDATED: July 1, 2004
ISRAEL new Israeli shekel (ILS)
A very complex story, but the bottom line is that Israel’s 7.5 million citizens inclusive with a large number of foreign workers enjoy a standard of living that is significantly higher than its Arab neighbors. An often violent region is mixed in with an advanced market economy for Israel and an Israeli currency that has held its own amongst all this conflict.
And in 2011, the story gets even more complex now with the discovery of a large important valuable natural resource.
For a snapshot discussion and a look at some of the highlighted facts impacting Israel and its currency, the new Israeli shekel, please click Israel’s flag below for more information.
Thank you for reading the currency opinion as presented by BankINTRO.com.
UPDATED: October 24, 2011
Over the last few years, there has been a substantial decline in interest rates while the Jamaican dollar has now finally stabilized in exchange value after a significant currency depreciation from late 2002 to early 2003. With a relatively small population base, Jamaica has only a handful of industries that provide for the nation’s foreign exchange earnings. Good things are happening, but heightened currency risk is prevalent after studying the political framework, the nation’s geography and limited productive base.
For a further discussion on the developments that are taking place within Jamaica and its impact on the Jamaican dollar, please click the flag below. Thanks for reading.
UPDATED: March 16, 2005
JAPAN yen (JPY)
Japan’s currency has had a colourful history of exchange volatility as it fell 68 percent in value from 1995 to 1998. Unlike the rest of Asia even including countries like the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, South Korea, the region as a whole is making a strong economic rebound with rising stock markets, strong GDP growth rates, growing foreign exchange reserves and appreciating currencies. What about Japan?
Are the Japanese authorities still intervening in the global currency market?
Over the last several years, the news headlines for Japan has centred around the nation’s 14-year depression. Are things really that bad in Japan?
And what about the Japanese yen, where does it stand globally?
When Japan was in the midst of an economic boom during the late 1980’s, you maybe surprised to find out where the yen was trading in relation to the US-dollar (USD) particularly in the 1970’s. For some of these answers and a complete discussion on the Japanese economy and other issues pertaining to the Japanese yen, please click the flag below. Thank you for reading.
UPDATED: June 20, 2005
JERSEY pound (JEP, GBP)
The tiny state of Jersey is located northwest of France in the English Channel, the island is 116 square km home to 91,000 people. Jersey is a well known international financial & banking centre. With a strong tourism industry coupled with minimal taxation, Jersey standard of living is very high at approximately 40,000 USD per capita. The Jersey pound is in currency union with the United Kingdom by being tied to the UK pound sterling at par. The Jersey monetary system includes Jersey notes, Bank of England notes and the Guernsey pound are all legal tender. Conversely, Jersey notes are not accepted as legal tender within England, Wales and Scotland. The British pound follows that of a floating exchange rate regime.
UPDATED: November 5, 2006
JORDAN dinar (JOD)
For a brief currency overview of the Jordanian dinar as researched by BankINTRO.com, please click the flag below. Thanks for visiting.
UPDATED: July 24, 2006
KAZAKHSTAN tenge (KZT)
BankINTRO.com has provided summary information related to Kazakhstan’s national currency, the tenge. Please click the flag below for further details. Thanks for visiting.
UPDATED: March 18, 2006
During the 1960’s and 1970’s, Kenya use to be a star peforming economy in Africa. However, this has changed dramatically over the last generation to the negative as Kenya now finds itself with an economy that is crippled badly from a wide array of issues. Some of these factors include Kenya’s large foreign debt, an ailing infrastructure, a population that is being torn by AIDS, ethnic divisions, out of control crime & violence, drought, power & crop shortages and alledged human rights abuses during the 1990’s. It should be conveyed that the most devestating influence of them all is a former government that has ruled for years without outright blatant corruption that essentially killed foreign investment and the economy.
The result is that 50 percent of the Kenyan population live below the poverty line and whereby 60 percent earn less than $1 USD/day.
But what about the Kenyan shilling, how has it performed amongst all this chaos?
For a review on the developments taking place within Kenya, please click the flag below. Thank you in advance.
UPDATED: May 7, 2003
KOREA, NORTH won (KPW)
The overall situation for the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (D.P.R.K.) is that of vulnerability with respect to its economy and currency, the North Korean won. What is the outlook for North Korea, will the state entity survive? Will the North Korean ‘brown’ won survive? For a review of these issues and a brief discussion on other area’s of significant concern to North Korea and the world community with respect to North Korea’s ambition for nuclear knowledge, please click the flag below for further details as presented by BankINTRO.com. Thanks for visiting.
UPDATED: March 23, 2007
KOREA, SOUTH won (KRW)
After 9 years of currency soundness and as a nation sitting on a massive international foreign exchange reserves position, is trouble finally looming ahead for the South Korean won? Is it domestic or external factors that may bring currency exchange difficulty to the won?
For the latest details and summary of events taking place in the Korean Peninsula, please click the flag below as researched by BankINTRO.com. Thank you in advance.
UPDATED: April 4, 2007
KUWAIT dinar (KWD)
Kuwait is a prosperous stable, tiny oil-rich nation located at the north end of the Persian Gulf within the very volatile Middle East region. With the spike in oil prices over the last couple of years, Kuwait is flush with cash. Today, Kuwait is vulnerable in areas of external risks that are currently gaining momentum including the growing internal instability in Saudia Arabia and Iraq. Will it quite possibly be these regional risks that derail this perceived currency soundness for the Kuwaiti dinar? And what about the outlook for the world oil price, are buoyant oil prices here to stay for the medium term?
For a discussion on the developments taking place within Kuwait on how it relates to the Kuwaiti dinar, please click the flag below. Thank you for reading.
UPDATED: April 21, 2004
KYRGYZSTAN som (KGS)
For an overview of the currency developments taking place within Kyrgyzstan, please click the flag below. Thanks for visiting BankINTRO.com.
UPDATED: August 10, 2006
LAOS P.D.R new kip (LAK)
For a brief snapshot overview including economic statistics, currency, currency history and currency forecast, please click Laos P.D.R.’s flag below. Thank you for reading.
UPDATED: February 16, 2006
During the1990’s, the Lebanese pound performed very well with relative stability during the decade. Capital inflows coupled with reconstruction monies to rebuild the infrastructure within Lebanon after the devastating civil war from 1975-90 provided the country with an economic rebound. The currency stabilized, inflation dropped dramatically and gross foreign exchange reserves increased tremendously. Today, the picture is complicated with many variables including its history of political, religious and regional conflict. A looming and large economic difficulty for Lebanon ahead is the massive debt load and the aftershocks of the 2006 conflict with Israel. What lies ahead for the Lebanese pound?
For a snapshot overview of the Lebanese pound, please click the flag below. Thank you.
UPDATED: October 15, 2008
As a small landlocked sovereign nation surrounded by the larger powerful country of South Africa, Lesotho’s economic viability has largely been dependent upon remittances from Lesotho citizens working abroad in South African mines. Economic success for Lesotho to a large degree is dependent upon the success of South Africa.
For further details on Lesotho’s economy and currency, please click the flag below. Thank you for visiting.
UPDATED: October 14, 2008
At present, life is hell for the majority of Liberia’s 3.3 million citizens consisting of a large percentage under the age of 18. During the 1970’s and before, life was good in Liberia as it was considered to be one of Africa’s most peaceful and wealthy countries. This all changed dramatically in April 1980 when then President William Tolbert’s government was forced out of power by a violent coup. Liberia over the last 23 years has fallen victim to self-destruction as a society.
Is there any hope left for their national currency, the Liberian dollar ‘LRD’?
For a snapshot subjective review as presented by BankINTRO.com on the economic and political events that are taking place within Liberia, please click the flag below. Thank you for reading.
UPDATED: December 18, 2003
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