All information within this BankINTRODUCTIONS.com (BankINTRO.com) web site is provided
“as is” without warranties, expressed or implied, or representations of any kind. To the fullest extent permissible under applicable law, BankINTRODUCTIONS.com (BankINTRO.com) will not be liable for the quality, accuracy, reliability, completeness or timeliness of this information, or for any direct, indirect, consequential, incidental, special or punitive damages that may arise out of the use of this information by you ‘the web site visitor’ or anyone else (including, but not limited to, lost profits, trading losses, loss of opportunities, and damages that may result from any inaccuracy or incompleteness of this information). To the fullest extent permitted by law, BankINTRODUCTIONS.com (BankINTRO.com) will not be liable to you ‘the web site reader’ or anyone else under any tort, contract, negligence, strict liability, products liability or other theory with respect to this presentation of information.
Country / Currency
RWANDA franc (RWF)
Please click Rwanda’s flag below for further currency information pertaining to the Rwandan franc. Summary currency details presented as researched by BankINTRO.com. Feel free to come back and visit our web site again.
UPDATED: March 13, 2006
SAMOA tala (WST)
For summary notes on economic statistics, currency, currency history and currency forecast with respect to the Samoan tala, please click the flag below. Thank you for reading.
UPDATED: June 20, 2006
SAO TOME & PRINCIPE dobra (STD)
During the 1990’s, the dobra was one of the world’s worst performing currencies. Now, there is possible light at the end of the tunnel for this tiny African country. For a snapshot currency review of the dobra, please click the flag below. Thanks for visiting and feel free to visit back often to stay up to date on the latest global currency issues. UPDATED: September 23, 2007
SAUDIA ARABIA riyal (SAR)
Oil was discovered in the 1930’s in the Kingdom, since then, Saudia Arabia has been at the centre of the industrialized world’s attention with its massive oil reserves. The Kingdom of Saudia Arabia today has tremendous influence on OPEC, a leading oil cartel that can greatly impact the direction of oil prices. Until the day a new technology replaces oil, Saudia Arabia will remain in the international spotlight. But what makes this story more complex and interesting is that great internal & external risks are now becoming more evident within the Kingdom.
For a review of these risks and for the latest developments impacting the Saudi riyal, please click the flag below. Thank you in advance.
UPDATED: April 21, 2004
SERBIA and MONTENEGRO
The case study of Yugoslavia, now known as Serbia and Montenegro provide a valuable lesson and reminder to the reader why it is so very important to understand the soundness of currencies. Currency analysis should be a vital role in every citizen lives because in an instance, an unexpected shock can hit and bring catastrophic financial consequences. No better example of this collapse in economic confidence then what happened in Serbia and Montenegro.
Over the last 15 years, ill-flawed and misguided political leadership destroyed the Yugoslav dinar and their born again new currencies several times. Hyperinflations, wars, ethnic cleansing to name just a few led to an insolvent banking system and economic malaise.
For an interesting review on what happened in Serbia and Montenegro and its future, please click the flag below. Thank you for your consideration.
UPDATED: May 5, 2003
SEYCHELLES rupee (SCR)
For a look at the currency developments taking place within the Seychelles, please click the flag below. Feel free to visit BankINTRO.com often for currency quotes and the latest information on global currency issues of the day. Thanks for dropping by.
UPDATED: June 16, 2006
SIERRA LEONE leone(SLL)
How is Sierra Leone doing after a long violent civil war? For a brief review of the currency developments taking place within this war ravaged African nation, please click the flag below. Thanks for visiting BankINTRO.com.
UPDATED: September 15, 2006
SINGAPORE dollar (SGD)
For the last 20 years, the Singapore dollar has had a history of stability and currency soundness. The SGD even performed remarkably well during the 1997-98 Asian financial crash especially when compared to many other Southeast Asian currencies that collapsed in value. However, by year 2000-01 the global information technology (‘IT’) boom turned to bust. The Singapore economy then stalled for this wealthy city-state. What about now in year 2005? How is the economy and SGD performing?
For a further detailed currency analysis as presented by BankINTRO.com, please click the flag below. Thank you.
UPDATED: September 22, 2005
SOLOMON ISLANDS dollar (SBD)
Nestled far away in the South Pacific 1,200 miles northeast of Australia lies the tropical paradise of the Solomon Islands home to 992 islands with a population of 538,000. Many readers may have heard about the main island of Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands for the fierce and bloody battles of World War II that took place. Also, of historical importance is the fact the waters off of Guadalcanal is home to former U.S. President John F. Kennedy’s PT patrol boat that was sliced into two pieces by a Japanese cruiser during this war. Flash forward 60 years to the present and the Solomon Islands are again finding itself at times in the midst of conflict, but this time a domestic battle.
For a snapshot currency opinion on the SBD currency valuation, currency history and currency forecast, please click the Solomon Islands flag below. Thank you for reading.
UPDATED: September 9, 2005
Somalia located in eastern Africa ‘Horn of Africa’ is one of the world’s least developed and poorest countries on earth. With a population estimated upwards of 10 million, it is home to one of the youngest with a median age of 17.5 years where only one in six kids gets primary school. Instead, many young kids carry AK-47’s assault rifles rather than school books where these powerful weapons are in abundance in Somalia and can be purchased for as little as $200 USD in the city of Mogadishu.
How did this come about?
What about the Somalia shilling, what future lies ahead if any?
For an updated review on the related currency developments taking place within Somalia as presented by BankINTRO.com, please click the flag below. Thank you in advance.
UPDATED: April 5, 2004
SOUTH AFRICA rand
As a vibrant middle income country, South Africa’s venture with its currency the South African rand has been quite an adventure over the last few years. More like a screaming roller coaster ride at an amusement park. But what about the future?
Is the HIV/AIDS crisis throughout much of continental Africa with infection rates as high as 35 percent going to take down the South African economy over the long term like many of its neighbors? Is the rand going down with AIDS? What role does the price of gold play?
For a discussion on these currency issues and many other relevant factors influencing the exchange value of the South African rand, please click the flag below. Thank you in advance.
UPDATED: August 11, 2005
SRI LANKA rupee (SLRes)
Sri Lanka’s economy and national currency, the rupee ‘LKR’ have been held back financially due to a 20-year bloody civil war that has claimed over 60,000 lives. Recent peace talks and a cease-fire implemented in early 2002 create hope for resolve of Sri Lanka’s power and ethnic divide. The war has tarnished Sri Lanka’s image resulting in reduced foreign investment and lower tourist arrivals particularly with television images of suicide bombers at Sri Lanka’s only international airport in Colombo destroying 13 aircraft in 2001.
Does a peace dividend await Sri Lanka?
Will Sri Lanka be a country that will divide into two separate entities or unify as a single country?
For more details on our research as presented by BankINTRODUCTIONS.com, please click Sri Lanka’s flag below. Thank you for your consideration. UPDATED: January 21, 2003
SUDAN dinar (SDD)
Sudan located in northeast Africa is Africa’s largest geographical country but it is also home to some of the continent’s biggest problems with many Sudanese trying to escape poverty as the majority live below the poverty line coupled with regional famine and civil domestic conflict within Sudan. It is this continual civil war since 1983 between the northern Muslim Arabs (39 percent of population) and the black Christian & animist south (52 percent black) that has dominated the political landscape for Sudan. In addition, other regional and ethnic tensions remain prevalent within western Sudan where instability has taken hold.
How has the Sudanese dinar performed amongst all this conflict?
What lies ahead for Sudan’s economy?
For further information on the economic & political developments taking place within Sudan and the region, please click the flag below. Thank you for reading the currency opinion as presented by BankINTRO.com
UPDATED: December 20, 2003
The Surinamese guilder is a dangerous and riskier currency. Suriname has had a spectacular history of currency crashes more recently when the government devalued the guilder in October 2000.
Plagued by years of political mismanagent for this small South American economy, the guilder remains vulnerable. However, positive steps are taking place to put the guilder on a more stable footing.
To learn more how Suriname can minimize this currency exchange volatility, please click the flag below as presented by BankINTRODUCTIONS.com. Thank you for reading.
UPDATED: March 14, 2003
BankINTRO.com has taken the time to present a brief summary of the currency issues impacting the Swazi lilangeni. Of relevance to Swaziland, please also visit the currency summary of South Africa as its macro-developments directly impact Swaziland. Come back and visit us often to stay at the forefront of global currency news. Please click the Swaziland flag below.
UPDATED: September 15, 2006
Sweden is a modern industrialized export oriented economy that is home to one of the world’s most extensive cradle to grave social welfare state systems. Has their generous welfare system come at a cost? In 1970, Sweden’s GDP/Capita was ranked number four in the world compared to present day ranking of seventeen. Over the last 30 years, Sweden has at times experienced turbulent currency pressures with volatility particularly during the 1970-80’s and later in 1992. The next phase in Sweden’s currency progress was entrance into the European Union in 1995 and the corresponding national referendum for YES/NO for adopting the euro as new national currency.
For further details on Sweden’s currency, the krona, please click the flag below as researched by BankIntro.com. Thank you for reading.
UPDATED: February 16, 2004
SWITZERLAND franc (CHF)
The Swiss franc is the world’s premiere fiat currency. It has earned the reputation as a ‘safe haven’ currency due to the fact that the Swiss franc is backed by an impressive position of gold assets, foreign liquid assets and by annual massive current account surpluses flowing into Switzerland’s economy.
What risks, if any are threatening the Swiss franc? The Euroland euro and EU membership? What about the volatile gold price? A change in Swiss banking secrecy laws?
For a complete discussion on Switzerland in relation to its national currency, the Swiss franc, please click the Swiss flag below for further information. Thank you in advance.
UPDATED: January 12, 2005
SYRIA pound (SYP)
Significant currency risks are now prevalent for Syria. For a brief discussion on the Syrian pound, please click the flag below as presented by BankINTRO.com. Thanks for visiting.
UPDATED: October 17, 2006
TAIWAN new Taiwan dollar (TWD)
The new Taiwan dollar has performed well over the last 10 years in terms of global purchasing power parity, but the key question is, what about the next 10 years?
Throughout the 1990’s, Taiwan exploited markets in the United States to great prosperity for Taiwanese exports of semiconductors, chips and other electronic products. Tawain has accordingly flourished with immense foreign exchange earnings and has one of the strongest credit ratings in all of Asia with a sound currency. However, continued strong export markets should never be taken for granted particularly in a world now with low cost manufacturing centres and great competition from new countries wanting in on the hi-tech electronic boom. With the United States at the crest of its spending with a debt laden consumer coupled with political tensions with mainland China’s show of military force in the straits of Taiwan, where and how will Taiwan be able to swim to safer waters to mitigate these turbulent currency exchange pressures?
For a snapshot review on the developments taking place with Taiwan, please click the flag below as presented by BankINTRO.com. Thank you for reading.
UPDATED: January 5, 2004
TAJIKISTAN somoni (TJS)
The nation’s former currency, the Tajik ruble imploded in value due to a civil war and economic depression during the 1990’s. In year 2000, the somoni became new national currency for Tajikistan. For a brief summary of the currency developments taking place within Tajikistan, please click the flag below. Thanks for visiting.
UPDATED: November 25, 2005
The United Republic of Tanzania located in eastern central Africa was formed in 1964 via the merger of Tanganyika (mainland Africa) and the island of Zanzibar just off the coast domiciled in the Indian Ocean. Today, Tanzania has been regarded as a relative success story when compared to the rest of continental Africa. Challenges remain as Tanzania is still ranked as one of the world’s poorest nations as ranked by GDP/Capita. Upwards of one-third the population live below the poverty line while foreign donor support is still vital to the country’s lifeline.
What’s next for Tanzania and it’s national currency, the Tanzanian shilling?
For a subjective currency opinion as presented by BankINTRO.com, please click the flag below. Thanks for reading.
UPDATED: March 26, 2004
THAILAND baht (THB)
The Kingdom of Thailand has had a long history as a nation going back to the mid 14th century (formerly known as Siam). Today, the country is vibrant and rebounding smartly from devastating shocks including a major tsunami and a late 1990’s financial crisis.
The nation’s currency, the ‘Thai baht’ has stabilized since the currency crash that enveloped through much of Southeast Asia during 1997-98. During this currency crisis, the baht then lost half its value in weeks with the exchange rate collapsing to 56 THB to 1 US-dollar (USD) resulting in one of the world’s worst performing currencies during this time. Conversely, Thailand in year 2005 is enjoying relative currency stability.
Are the good times to continue or are there storm clouds on the horizon?
For a subjective currency opinion as presented by BankINTRO.com on Thailand’s national currency, please click the Thai flag below. Thank you in advance.
This tiny south pacific nation surprisingly has had relative currency stability. However, financial risks are prevalent as Tonga is having growing pains transforming to a democracy after being ruled by one of the world’s last absolute monarchies, the Royal family of Tonga.
For further background information and details on Tonga and its currency, the pa’anga, please click the flag below. Thank you for your consideration.
UPDATED: May 15, 2009
TRINIDAD & TOBAGO dollar
Trinidad and Tobago is one of the wealthiest countries within the Caribbean due to its offshore petroleum industry.
What risks are prevalent, if any to its currency?
For a quick snapshot review of the events that have taken place within this southerly Caribbean island nation, please click the flag below. Thank you for your consideration.
UPDATED: March 15, 2005
The Tunisian dinar has performed quite well over the last decade providing this modern Muslim secular nation with currency stability and a standard of living that is quite respectable within Africa and the Arab world. Important trade agreements signed coupled with a prudent brand of authoritarian political leadership has paid dividends to the Tunisian people. Although the country is far from perfect particularly in the area of democratic freedoms, Tunisia has achieved relative economic prosperity and social advancements that are unique for a Muslim country.
Please click the Tunisian flag below for further detailed information impacting the dinar along with many other statistics such as historical currency quotes. Thanks for reading.
UPDATED: September 22, 2004.
Modern Turkey founding in year 1923 on the Ottoman Empire’s ruins by Kemal Ataturk. He had a secular, Europe-oriented vision that rejected what he considered a backward Muslim world. The Turkey military has protected this philosophical outlook ‘secularism’ since year 1923. In the decades that followed, Turkey’s political framework has been fragmented, and quite often political instability has taken hold. The economy has been volatile, and the national currency, the Turkish lira was well known for its consistent yearly depreciation in value to hard currencies.
In February 2001, the floor fell out from the lira as political chaos and investor confidence in the Turkey banking system collapsed. The lira accordingly crashed in value. Over the next 2 years, the economy experienced its worst recession since World War II. By 2005, the economy has recovered and the currency stabilized.
Ironically, Turkey which is 99 percent Muslim on a population total of 72 million (2008) has tremendous potential and parts of the economy do show positive performance. What’s next for Turkey and its currency, the lira? Will Turkey make it financially and qualify for European Union (EU) membership and adopt the Euroland euro as its next currency later in the next decade? For a discussion on Turkey and its currency, please click the flag below. Thank you in advance.
UPDATED: August 18, 2008
TURKMENISTAN manat (TMT)
Turkmenistan has experienced a challenging economic transition since national independence over the last 23 years from the former Soviet Union. The former Turkmenistan manat (TMM) currency collapsed in value during the 1990's.
A mostly desert country with a small population of 5.1 million has a history of hyperinflations?
Do better economic times and future prosperity lie ahead for this energy resource rich nation?
Inside is a snapshot and update of some of the key developments taking place within Turkmenistan. Thank you for your interest in the manat currency.
UPDATED: July 25, 2014
UGANDA shilling (UGX)
Uganda today is one of the world’s poorest countries but its currency the Ugandan shilling has performed quite well over the last 10 years. Since 1986 under the new political leadership of President Museveni, Uganda has transformed itself from a state of economic chaos to that of relative peace, stability and economic progress. Today, this central African nation has improved its standard of living with better health & education systems, increased rights for its citizens and an economy that is advancing with a rebuilding of its infrastructure with assistance from foreign aid donors.
For a further discussion on the economic, political and social developments that are taking place within Uganda and how it is impacting the Ugandan shilling, please click the flag below. Thank you for reading the currency analysis as presented by BankINTRO.com.
UPDATED: September 27, 2004
The majority of Ukrainians that are living today have experienced national hyperinflation with their own national currency. This economic calamity is a life changing experience that is wished not to be repeated.
How is Ukraine’s national currency the hryvnia performing especially since the currency instability of the early to mid-1990’s?
For a snapshot overview of the affairs and how it is impacting the hryvnia, please click the flag below. Thank you.
UPDATED: September 26, 2012
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES dirham
Tremendous change at a lightning pace is overtaking the United Arab Emirates. A nation rich in hydrocarbon energy reserves, UAE is well managed reflecting its currency stability. Diversification of the economy into new exciting industries is driving the UAE forward not to mention the mega-construction projects currently underway.
For a detailed review as presented by BankINTRO.COM of the developments taking place within this booming Middle East country of the United Arab Emirates, please click its flag below. Thank you for reading.
UPDATED: March 17, 2005
UNITED KINGDOM pound sterling (GBP)
The United Kingdom (UK) is a major trading power, global financial center home to a modern industrialized first world economy. The UK is a member of the European Union (EU) although they decided not to join economic monetary union (EMU) with the initial 12 country Eurozone back in year 1999 at the time of euro (EUR) inception. At some point in the future, the question will ultimately arrive directly to the British voter of whether or not the UK should adopt the EUR or stay with pound sterling (GBP).
Will the UK’s worsening fiscal and trade deficit position impact the UK’s economy that is currently one of the strongest in Europe? UK unemployment is near historic lows along with interest rates and inflation. Are the good times over for the British economy and its national currency, the pound sterling?
For a discussion on the relevant currency events taking place within the United Kingdom, please click the flag below for a subjective currency opinion as presented by BankINTRO.com. Thank you for reading.
UPDATED: April 4, 2008
UNITED STATES dollar (USD)
American Samoa, British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guam, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks & Caicos.
The US-dollar (USD), a global reserve currency has experienced currency exchange pressure since year 2001. Now in year 2008, a U.S. presidential election year, how does U.S. politics impact the value of the USD? Is a major cyclical sea change in the value of the US-dollar in progress? Which way, depreciation or appreciation?
BankINTRODUCTIONS.com is very pleased to provide a snapshot currency opinion on the USD. Please click the U.S. flag below for our currency review on this very important currency in the world of global finance.
UPDATED: February 4, 2008
URUGUAY uruguayo peso (UYU)
The Uruguayan peso crashed in year 2002 by falling 50 percent in value versus the US-dollar (USD). This development is most surprising for this small South American country as its historically sound banking system has given Uruguay the reputation of ‘Switzerland of South America’. What happened to cause the Uruguayan economy to shatter with social unrest and banking failures?
For the most part, Uruguay's small economy is dominated by its two neighboring giants, Argentina and Brazil. In late 2001, Argentina was in the midst of an economic implosion and finally had to float the Argentinean peso which immediately collapsed 75 percent in value in relation to the USD. Adding to these pressures was the economic slowdown in Brazil coupled with its own devaluation of the 'real' in early 1999. Water seeks its own level, it was these external pressures that brought Uruguay to its knees financially in 2002.
But what about now in year 2008? How is the uruguayo peso performing?
For an updated discussion on Uruguay’s economy, political and historical currency research, please click the Uruguayan flag below for further details on the currency outlook for Uruguay. Thank you in advance.
UPDATED: March 19, 2008
UZBEKISTAN som (UZS)
For a brief snapshot currency review on Uzbekistan including research notes with regard to economic statistics, currency, currency history and currency forecast, please click the Uzbek flag below. Thank you for visiting.
UPDATED: September 9, 2005
VANUATU vatu (VUV)
Vanuatu is a small sovereign oceania nation with a total population of 200,000 consisting of 80 islands located in the South Pacific just north of Australia about a quarter of the way to Hawaii, USA. Geographically, Vanuatu is domiciled on the Pacific Rim of Fire that is prone to earthquakes and tsunamis. Vanuatu lies within a 2 hours flight from the major cities of Australia. Over 100 languages and variations are spoken making this small country one of the most linguistic places on planet earth.
What about Vanuatu’s national currency, the vatu ‘VUV’, what’s the peformance like?
What new industries lie ahead for Vanuatu to support the exchange value for the vatu?
For a snapshot discussion on the currency developments taking fold in this beautiful country of Vanuatu, please click the flag below. Thank you for reading the currency opinion of BankINTRO.com
UPDATED: December 11, 2003
Since President Chavez came to power, the Venezuelan bolivar has tumbled in value. Venezuela with tremendous energy wealth, it should be a country that is much wealthier with a currency that is much stronger but this is not the case. In fact, before President Chavez came to power, capital flight and corruption was out of control. This is why President Chavez was elected, Venezuela was a nation with a population segment that is very rich and the majority who are impoverished.
Are the poor who represent the majority better off under President Chavez than before?
A national referendum that is eligible to take place anytime after August 2003 will be an important determinant for Venezuela’s exchange rate. Where is the bolivar headed next?
For a discussion on the life and times of Venezuela and its volatile currency, please click the flag below as presented by BankINTRODUCTIONS.com.
UPDATED: June 7, 2003
VIETNAM dong (VND)
Vietnam has had a very long history of being conquered and fighting wars with much conflict. Finally, it appears that Vietnam today is laying the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful future. Change is happening at a tremendous rate in Vietnam. This war-torn Southeast Asian country is undergoing a generational shift towards the young as the national demographics reveal that the majority of Vietnamese have no recollection or connection to its violent past including the Vietnam War from 1957 to 1975 (or the American War as the Vietnamese eloquently state). The economy for a long time was held back due to its costly war with America, the collapse of central planning and loss of economic subsidies from the former Soviet Union.
How is the dong performed amongst this great change from central state economic planning to a socialist market economy?
In 1986, the Vietnamese government based in the capital city of Hanoi began ‘doi moi’ also known as economic renewal in order to build what was largely at the time an agrarian economy and still is for the most part with 54 percent of the population earning their livelihood in agriculture.
Great opportunity lies ahead for this resource rich country and spiritual society. For a discussion on the currency developments taking place in Vietnam today, please click the flag below. Thank you in advance.
UPDATED: March 28, 2011
YEMEN rial (YER)
For a brief currency overview of the Yemeni rial including research notes with regard to economic statistics, currency, currency history and a general currency forecast, please click Yemen’s flag below. Thank you for reading.
UPDATED: December 10, 2005
Zambia is a peaceful democratic nation that has managed to avoid conflict, but it is surrounded by conflict with instability prevalent in several regional countries including Angola where a blood war for diamonds is taking place. However, Zambia itself faces deep hurdles with its own battles including disease and an infrastructure in need of upgrading.
In the 1960’s and early 1970’s, Zambia was one of Africa’s big success stories, prosperous and stable. Today, the economy is trying to rebound from the disastrous socialist policies implemented under former President Kaunda who brought Zambia to economic dispair.
What about Zambia’s currency, the kwacha? Is it on the rebound after years of depreciation? In year 2000, Zambia’s tourism industry showed great signs of life recording 574,000 visitors. What other industries will support the kwacha in the future?
For further information and a discussion about Zambia, please click the flag below. Thank you in advance.
UPDATED: July 10, 2003
ZIMBABWE dollar (ZWD)
The Zimbabwean dollar remains in a state of currency collapse and freefall as the official rate was again recently devalued. It is a national tragedy that is developing which is entirely self-inflicted directly attributed to political mismanagement.
For a brief currency review looking only at economic statistics, currency, currency history and currency forecast, please click Zimbabwe’s flag below. Thank you.
UPDATED: September 20, 2005
BankINTRODUCTIONS.com. (‘BI.C’) is NOT liable for any incorrect, mistaken forecasts or inaccurate statements about a particular country’s currency. The content provided to all of our web site visitors is put forward in good faith and believed to be accurate as there are no implicit guarantees of the timeliness or accuracy of information presented. Our views and opinions are that of BI.C and are subject to change at anytime. It is important to note that our rating of ‘Currency Safeness’ (score ‘0’ - poor to 100 - very safe/sound) is based upon a subjective analysis of several variables inputted into our currency regression model analyzed by BI.C staff. Our rating does NOT forecast if a currency is undervalued or overvalued, but rather it is an overall subjective opinion on how safe BI.C believes the particular currency under review is from a significant devaluation or currency collapse. Currency evaluation is a very subjective profession based upon analyzing many objective and subjective variables. BI.C does regularly consult with banking professionals and industry analysts along with our own extensive research strategies to help make an accurate evaluation on a particular region/country or currency at a particular point in time. The BI.C web site reader accepts by using this web site, the reader will not hold BankINTRODUCTIONS.com. responsible or liable for decisions based on information from this web site. BI.C suggests that before making a decision, the reader ascertains numerous opinions from other independent sources